It seems like it would.
Yesterday, I published a piece called "Will Google Instant Kill the Small Publisher?", pointing out that Google Instant will cause people to click on search results before typing out their full search queries...
Since one of my important websites is Best Beef Jerky, I entered several beef jerky related terms. One of them being "beef jerky recipes".
As soon as I typed "beef j" Google assumed I was going to type "beef jerky" and immediately showed me results. At this point, a user can see the results and may not even bother continuing on to type "beef jerky recipes".
So if publishers make a shift towards increasing their optimization of short keywords, it seems likely that they will also compete harder for paid keywords. Small publishers that optimized on long tail keywords will also compete for short keywords on AdWords.
In theory, if the bid rates increase on short keywords, publishers should also see higher CPC rates on AdSense.
Also, publishers should see increased CPC rates on AdSense for Search, as marketers look to find bargains on short keywords.
If all this is works out this way, Google stands to benefit big time.